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Vitam Horm. 2017;103:295-326. doi: 10.1016/bs.vh.2016.09.002. Epub 2016 Oct 24.

The Role of Elements in Anxiety.

Author information

1
Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland. Electronic address: katarzyna.mlyniec@uj.edu.pl.
2
Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Abstract

Elements (bioelements) are necessary factors required for the physiological function of organisms. They are critically involved in fundamental processes of life. Extra- and intracellular message and metabolic pathway factors as well as structural components include one or many elements in their functional structure. Recent years have seen an intensification in terms of knowledge gained about the roles of elements in anxiety disorders. In this chapter we present a review of the most important current data concerning the involvement of zinc, magnesium, copper, lithium, iron, and manganese, and their deficiency, in the pathophysiology and treatment of anxiety.

KEYWORDS:

Anxiety; Copper; GPR39; Iron; Lithium; Magnesium; Manganese; NMDA; Zinc

PMID:
28061974
DOI:
10.1016/bs.vh.2016.09.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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