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PLoS One. 2017 Jan 6;12(1):e0169287. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169287. eCollection 2017.

Socioeconomic Status Is Not Related with Facial Fluctuating Asymmetry: Evidence from Latin-American Populations.

Author information

1
Grupo de Investigación en Biología Evolutiva Humana, Instituto Patagónico de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas, Centro Nacional Patagónico, CONICET. Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina.
2
Ciencia Forense, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, México.
3
Superintendência da Polícia Técnico-Científica do Estado de São Paulo. Equipe de Perícias Criminalísticas de Ourinhos, São Paulo, Brazil.
4
Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, and UCL Genetics Institute, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
5
Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Ciudad de México, México.
6
Posgrado en Antropología Física, Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Ciudad de México, México.
7
Departamento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo.
8
GENMOL, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.
9
Departamento de Técnología Médica, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile.
10
Laboratorios de Investigación y Desarrollo, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú.
11
Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brasil.
12
Unidad de Genómica de Poblaciones Aplicada a la Salud, Facultad de Química, UNAM-Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, Ciudad de México, México.
13
Instituto de Alta Investigación Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile.
14
Departamento de Antropología. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.
15
MOE Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
16
Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, EFS, ADES, Marseille, France.

Abstract

The expression of facial asymmetries has been recurrently related with poverty and/or disadvantaged socioeconomic status. Departing from the developmental instability theory, previous approaches attempted to test the statistical relationship between the stress experienced by individuals grown in poor conditions and an increase in facial and corporal asymmetry. Here we aim to further evaluate such hypothesis on a large sample of admixed Latin Americans individuals by exploring if low socioeconomic status individuals tend to exhibit greater facial fluctuating asymmetry values. To do so, we implement Procrustes analysis of variance and Hierarchical Linear Modelling (HLM) to estimate potential associations between facial fluctuating asymmetry values and socioeconomic status. We report significant relationships between facial fluctuating asymmetry values and age, sex, and genetic ancestry, while socioeconomic status failed to exhibit any strong statistical relationship with facial asymmetry. These results are persistent after the effect of heterozygosity (a proxy for genetic ancestry) is controlled in the model. Our results indicate that, at least on the studied sample, there is no relationship between socioeconomic stress (as intended as low socioeconomic status) and facial asymmetries.

PMID:
28060876
PMCID:
PMC5218465
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0169287
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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