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J Vet Sci. 2018 Jan 31;19(1):35-43. doi: 10.4142/jvs.2018.19.1.35.

Analysis of structure-function relationship in porcine rotavirus A enterotoxin gene.

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Indian Council of Agricultural Research-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Uttar Pradesh 243122, India.
Department of Biomedical Sciences, One Health Center for Zoonoses and Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 334, Basseterre, Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis.
Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8556, Japan.
Institute for Veterinary Medical Research, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest 1143, Hungary.


Rotavirus (RV)-infected piglets are presumed to be latent sources of heterologous RV infection in humans and other animals. In RVs, non-structural protein 4 (NSP4) is the major virulence factor with pleiotropic properties. In this study, we analyzed the nsp4 gene from porcine RVs isolated from diarrheic and non-diarrheic cases at different levels of protein folding to explore correlations to diarrhea-inducing capabilities and evolution of nsp4 in the porcine population. Full-length nsp4 genes were amplified, cloned, sequenced, and then analyzed for antigenic epitopes, RotaC classification, homology, genetic relationship, modeling of NSP4 protein, and prediction of post-translational modification. RV presence was observed in both diarrheic and non-diarrheic piglets. All nsp4 genes possessed the E1 genotype. Comparison of primary, secondary, and tertiary structure and the prediction of post-translational modifications of NSP4 from diarrheic and non-diarrheic piglets revealed no apparent differences. Sequence analysis indicated that nsp4 genes have a multi-phyletic evolutionary origin and exhibit species independent genetic diversity. The results emphasize the evolution of the E9 nsp4 genotype from the E1 genotype and suggest that the diarrhea-inducing capability of porcine RVs may not be exclusively linked to its enterotoxin gene.


enterotoxins; nsp4 gene evolution; porcine; rotavirus; viral nonstructural proteins

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