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Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2017 Aug;68(5):617-626. doi: 10.1080/09637486.2016.1268102. Epub 2017 Jan 5.

Validation and reproducibility of an Australian caffeine food frequency questionnaire.

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a Centre for Sleep Research, School of Psychology, University of South Australia , Adelaide , Australia.
b Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity , School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia , Adelaide , Australia.


The aim of this study was to measure validity and reproducibility of a caffeine food frequency questionnaire (C-FFQ) developed for the Australian population. The C-FFQ was designed to assess average daily caffeine consumption using four categories of food and beverages including; energy drinks; soft drinks/soda; coffee and tea and chocolate (food and drink). Participants completed a seven-day food diary immediately followed by the C-FFQ on two consecutive days. The questionnaire was first piloted in 20 adults, and then, a validity/reproducibility study was conducted (n = 90 adults). The C-FFQ showed moderate correlations (r = .60), fair agreement (mean difference 63 mg) and reasonable quintile rankings indicating fair to moderate agreement with the seven-day food diary. To test reproducibility, the C-FFQ was compared to itself and showed strong correlations (r = .90), good quintile rankings and strong kappa values (κ = 0.65), indicating strong reproducibility. The C-FFQ shows adequate validity and reproducibility and will aid researchers in Australia to quantify caffeine consumption.


Caffeine; food frequency questionnaire; nutrition assessment; questionnaire; reproducibility; validation studies

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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