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J Cancer Prev. 2016 Dec;21(4):294-301. doi: 10.15430/JCP.2016.21.4.294. Epub 2016 Dec 30.

The Role of Oral Contraceptive Pills on Increased Risk of Breast Cancer in Iranian Populations: A Meta-analysis.

Author information

1
Lifestyle Modification Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
2
Cancer Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
3
Clinical Research Development Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
4
HSR unit of Treatment Deputy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cancer is one of the main public health issues in the world. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer among women. It is also the second cause of mortality in women. The association between the use of oral contraceptive pills and breast cancer is controversial and a main issue in public health. Some findings have shown that taking these pills does not have a significant effect in increasing the risk of breast cancer, while others have confirmed the carcinogenic effect of these products. These contradictory findings necessitated this meta-analysis, through of all correlated studies in Iran.

METHODS:

All published studies were considered from June 2000 until June 2015, using reliable Latin databases like PubMed, Google Scholar, Google search, Scopus, and Science Direct, and Persian database like SID, Irandoc, IranMedex, and Magiran. Finally, 26 papers were selected: 24 studies were case control while two were population based studies. A total of 26 papers with 46,260 participants were assessed since 2001.

RESULTS:

Overall estimate of OR for the effect of oral contraceptive pills on breast cancer is 1.521 (CI = 1.25-1.85), which shows that the intervention group had more chance (52%) compared to the control group (P = 0.001). Using these pills increased the risk of breast cancer up to 1.52 times.

CONCLUSIONS:

Because of directly increasing levels of estrogen and the role of estrogen in gaining weight indirectly, oral contraceptive pills can stimulate the occurrence of breast cancer. More studies should be conducted for controlling the period of pill use.

KEYWORDS:

Breast neoplasms; Iran; Meta-analysis; Oral contraceptive

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