Send to

Choose Destination
Iran J Psychiatry. 2016 Oct;11(4):250-256.

Reliability and Validity of the Persian Version of Compulsive Eating Scale (CES) in Overweight or Obese Women and Its Relationship with Some Body Composition and Dietary Intake Variables.

Author information

Psychiatry & Psychology Research Center, Roozbeh Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
School of Nutritional Sciences and Clinical Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Iran University of Medical Sciences, Gastrointestinal & Liver Diseases Research Center, Tehran, Iran.
Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran.


Objective: Compulsive or binge eating is a kind of disturbed eating behavior, which is mostly observed among dieting women, and is integrated with appetite disorder, and uncontrolled eating of plenty of junk food. The Compulsive Eating Scale (CES) created first by Kagan & Squires in 1984, is an eight-item self-reporting instrument that is made to measure the severity of binge eating disorder. The aim of this study was to provide the reliability and validity of the Persian version of Compulsive Eating Scale (CES) among overweight and obese women in Iran. Method: One hundred and twenty six (N = 126) overweight and obese women consented to participate in this study. We estimated the anthropometric indices, including body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, a total body fat percentage, and visceral fat level with body analyzer all in standard situations. Then, the participants completed the CES. Next, to assess concurrent validity, Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger anxiety scale, appetite visual analogue rating scale, Food Craving questionnaire, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18, and Restraint eating visual analogue rating scale were performed simultaneously. To assess test-retest reliability, CES was repeated for all the participants two weeks later. Moreover, we reported the internal consistency and factor analysis of this questionnaire. Furthermore, we estimated the concurrent correlation of CES with logically relevant questionnaires and body composition and anthropometric indices. Results: Based on the reliability analysis and factor analysis of the principal component by Varimax rotation, we extracted two factors: eating because of negative feelings, and overeating. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of the CES was 0.85 (Cronbach alpha of the factors was 0.85, and 0.74, respectively). The test-retest correlation of the CES was 0.89. Also, the split-half reliability of the questionnaire was established with the correlation coefficient between Sets I and II. The correlation was 0.85. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the Persian version of the CES. This instrument would be helpful in measuring the clinical practice and research studies of obesity, appetite and eating disorders reliably and validly.


Appetite; Compulsive Eating Scale (CES); Eating Disorder; Obesity; Overweight; Women


Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center