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Nutr Rev. 2017 Jan;75(suppl 1):32-50. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuw033.

Maternal nutrition: opportunities in the prevention of gestational diabetes.

Author information

1
J. Spieldenner and T.M. Samuel are with Public Health Nutrition, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland. I. Silva-Zolezzi is with Nutrition and Health Research, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland.
2
J. Spieldenner and T.M. Samuel are with Public Health Nutrition, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland. I. Silva-Zolezzi is with Nutrition and Health Research, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland. jorg.spieldenner@rdls.nestle.com.

Abstract

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is currently defined as glucose intolerance that is of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study, including 25 000 nondiabetic pregnant women in 15 centers across the world, reported that an average of 17.8% of pregnancies are affected by GDM and its frequency can be as high as 25.5% in some countries, based on the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria. Nevertheless, true global prevalence estimates of GDM are currently lacking due to the high level of heterogeneity in screening approaches, diagnostic criteria, and differences in the characteristics of the populations that were studied. The presence of systemic high blood glucose levels in pregnancy results in an adverse intrauterine environment, which has been shown to have a negative impact on short- and long-term health outcomes for both the mother and her offspring, including increased risks for the infant to develop obesity and for both mother and child to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus later in life. Epigenetic mechanisms that are directly influenced by environmental factors, including nutrition, may play a key role in shaping these future health risks and may be part of this vicious cycle. This article reviews the burden of GDM and the current evidence that supports maternal nutritional interventions as a promising strategy to break the cycle by addressing risk factors associated with GDM.

KEYWORDS:

food fortification; gestational diabetes mellitus; hyperglycemia; micronutrient; nutrition

PMID:
28049748
PMCID:
PMC5437972
DOI:
10.1093/nutrit/nuw033
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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