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Chem Rev. 2017 Feb 8;117(3):901-986. doi: 10.1021/acs.chemrev.6b00073. Epub 2017 Jan 3.

Nanomaterials for In Vivo Imaging.

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Stanford University , 3155 Porter Drive, #1214, Palo Alto, California 94304-5483, United States.
The James H. Clark Center , 318 Campus Drive, First Floor, E-150A, Stanford, California 94305-5427, United States.


In vivo imaging, which enables us to peer deeply within living subjects, is producing tremendous opportunities both for clinical diagnostics and as a research tool. Contrast material is often required to clearly visualize the functional architecture of physiological structures. Recent advances in nanomaterials are becoming pivotal to generate the high-resolution, high-contrast images needed for accurate, precision diagnostics. Nanomaterials are playing major roles in imaging by delivering large imaging payloads, yielding improved sensitivity, multiplexing capacity, and modularity of design. Indeed, for several imaging modalities, nanomaterials are now not simply ancillary contrast entities, but are instead the original and sole source of image signal that make possible the modality's existence. We address the physicochemical makeup/design of nanomaterials through the lens of the physical properties that produce contrast signal for the cognate imaging modality-we stratify nanomaterials on the basis of their (i) magnetic, (ii) optical, (iii) acoustic, and/or (iv) nuclear properties. We evaluate them for their ability to provide relevant information under preclinical and clinical circumstances, their in vivo safety profiles (which are being incorporated into their chemical design), their modularity in being fused to create multimodal nanomaterials (spanning multiple different physical imaging modalities and therapeutic/theranostic capabilities), their key properties, and critically their likelihood to be clinically translated.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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