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Physiol Rep. 2016 Dec;4(24). pii: e13058. doi: 10.14814/phy2.13058.

The effect of polyphenols on cytokine and granulocyte response to resistance exercise.

Author information

Institute of Exercise Physiology and Wellness, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida.
Department of Exercise Physiology, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio.
Institute of Exercise Physiology and Wellness, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida
Exercise and Nutrition Science, Lipscomb University, Nashville, Tennessee.
Kemin Foods L.C., Des Moines, Iowa.
Pediatric Exercise and Genomics Research Center (PERC), University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California.


This study examined the effect of resistance exercise on the production, recruitment, percentage, and adhesion characteristics of granulocytes with and without polyphenol (PPB) supplementation. Thirty-eight untrained men were randomized into three groups: PPB (n = 13, 21.8 ± 2.5 years, 171.2 ± 5.5 cm, 71.2 ± 8.2 kg), placebo (PL; n = 15, 21.6 ± 2.5 years, 176.5 ± 4.9 cm, 84.0 ± 15.7 kg), or control (CON; n = 10, 23.3 ± 4.3 years, 173.7 ± 12.6 cm, 77.3 ± 16.3 kg). Blood samples were obtained pre (PRE), immediately (IP), 1 h (1H), 5 h (5H), 24 h (24H), 48 h (48H), and 96 h (96H) postresistance exercise (PPB/PL) or rest (CON). Fine-needle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis at PRE, 1H, 5H, and 48H. Plasma concentrations and intramuscular content of interleukin-8 (IL-8), granulocyte (G-CSF), and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were analyzed via multiplex assays. Changes in relative number of circulating granulocytes and adhesion receptor (CD11b) were assessed using flow cytometry. Intramuscular IL-8 was significantly elevated at 1H, 5H, and 48H (P < 0.001). Area under the curve analysis indicated a greater intramuscular IL-8 content in PL than PPB (P = 0.011). Across groups, circulating G-CSF was elevated from PRE at IP (P < 0.001), 1H (P = 0.011), and 5H (P = 0.025), while GM-CSF was elevated at IP (P < 0.001) and 1H (P = 0.007). Relative number of granulocytes was elevated at 1H (P < 0.001), 5H (P < 0.001), and 24H (P = 0.005, P = 0.006) in PPB and PL, respectively. Across groups, granulocyte CD11b expression was upregulated from PRE to IP (P < 0.001) and 1H (P = 0.015). Results indicated an increase in circulating CD11b on granulocytes, and IL-8 within the muscle following intense resistance exercise. Polyphenol supplementation may attenuate the IL-8 response, however, did not affect granulocyte percentage and adhesion molecule expression in peripheral blood following resistance exercise.


CD11b/CD18; exercise immunology; granulocyte colony stimulating factor; granulocyte–macrophage colony stimulating factor; inflammation; interleukin‐8

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