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Environ Int. 2017 Feb;99:131-150. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2016.12.016. Epub 2016 Dec 27.

Measuring biomarkers in wastewater as a new source of epidemiological information: Current state and future perspectives.

Author information

1
Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, Universitat Jaume I, Castellon, Spain; IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri", Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: lor@uji.es.
2
IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri", Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: sara.castiglioni@marionegri.it.
3
Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, Universitat Jaume I, Castellon, Spain. Electronic address: bade@uji.es.
4
Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium. Electronic address: frederic.been@uantwerpen.be.
5
Deparment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK. Electronic address: E.Castrignano@bath.ac.uk.
6
Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium. Electronic address: adrian.covaci@uantwerpen.be.
7
IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri", Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: iria.gonzalez@usc.es.
8
NIREAS-International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus. Electronic address: hapeshi.evroula@ucy.ac.cy.
9
Deparment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK. Electronic address: B.Kasprzyk-Hordern@bath.ac.uk.
10
Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium. Electronic address: juliet.kinyua@uantwerpen.be.
11
Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium. Electronic address: FoonYin.Lai@uantwerpen.be.
12
Analytical Group, Chair of Urban Water Systems Engineering, Technical University of Munich, Germany. Electronic address: t.letzel@tum.de.
13
Deparment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK. Electronic address: l.lopardo@bath.ac.uk.
14
Department of Experimental and Clinical Toxicology, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Saarland University, 66421 Homburg, Germany. Electronic address: markus.meyer@med.uni-heidelberg.de.
15
National Research Center for Environmental Toxicology, The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, QLD 4108, Australia. Electronic address: j.obrien2@uq.edu.au.
16
Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark. Electronic address: pear@env.dtu.dk.
17
IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri", Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: nikolaos.rousis@marionegri.it.
18
Deparment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK. Electronic address: a.rydevik@bath.ac.uk.
19
Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment, Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: Yeonsuk.Ryu@niva.no.
20
CIMAR/CIIMAR, LA-Interdisciplinary Centre for marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Portugal; FCUP-Dept of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address: santos@ciimar.up.pt.
21
Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia. Electronic address: isenta@irb.hr.
22
Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografou, 15771 Athens, Greece. Electronic address: ntho@chem.uoa.gr.
23
Analytical Group, Chair of Urban Water Systems Engineering, Technical University of Munich, Germany. Electronic address: sofia.veloutsou@tum.de.
24
Division of Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, G128LT Glasgow, United Kingdom. Electronic address: Zhugen.Yang@glasgow.ac.uk.
25
IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri", Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: ettore.zuccato@marionegri.it.
26
Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, Universitat Jaume I, Castellon, Spain. Electronic address: bijlsma@uji.es.

Abstract

The information obtained from the chemical analysis of specific human excretion products (biomarkers) in urban wastewater can be used to estimate the exposure or consumption of the population under investigation to a defined substance. A proper biomarker can provide relevant information about lifestyle habits, health and wellbeing, but its selection is not an easy task as it should fulfil several specific requirements in order to be successfully employed. This paper aims to summarize the current knowledge related to the most relevant biomarkers used so far. In addition, some potential wastewater biomarkers that could be used for future applications were evaluated. For this purpose, representative chemical classes have been chosen and grouped in four main categories: (i) those that provide estimates of lifestyle factors and substance use, (ii) those used to estimate the exposure to toxicants present in the environment and food, (iii) those that have the potential to provide information about public health and illness and (iv) those used to estimate the population size. To facilitate the evaluation of the eligibility of a compound as a biomarker, information, when available, on stability in urine and wastewater and pharmacokinetic data (i.e. metabolism and urinary excretion profile) has been reviewed. Finally, several needs and recommendations for future research are proposed.

KEYWORDS:

Biomarker; Consumption; Epidemiology; Exposure; Population; Wastewater

PMID:
28038971
DOI:
10.1016/j.envint.2016.12.016
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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