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Nutrients. 2016 Dec 28;9(1). pii: E15. doi: 10.3390/nu9010015.

Effect of Human Milk Appetite Hormones, Macronutrients, and Infant Characteristics on Gastric Emptying and Breastfeeding Patterns of Term Fully Breastfed Infants.

Author information

1
School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth, Western Australia 6009, Australia. zgridneva@gmail.com.
2
School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth, Western Australia 6009, Australia. 21141062@student.uwa.edu.au.
3
School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth, Western Australia 6009, Australia. 21141062@student.uwa.edu.au.
4
School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth, Western Australia 6009, Australia. anna.hepworth@uwa.edu.au.
5
School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth, Western Australia 6009, Australia. ash.tie@uwa.edu.au.
6
School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth, Western Australia 6009, Australia. ching-tat.lai@uwa.edu.au.
7
School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. l.ward@uq.edu.au.
8
School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth, Western Australia 6009, Australia. peter.hartmann@uwa.edu.au.
9
School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth, Western Australia 6009, Australia. donna.geddes@uwa.edu.au.

Abstract

Human milk (HM) components influence infant feeding patterns and nutrient intake, yet it is unclear how they influence gastric emptying (GE), a key component of appetite regulation. This study analyzed GE of a single breastfeed, HM appetite hormones/macronutrients and demographics/anthropometrics/body composition of term fully breastfed infants (n = 41, 2 and/or 5 mo). Stomach volumes (SV) were calculated from pre-/post-feed ultrasound scans, then repeatedly until the next feed. Feed volume (FV) was measured by the test-weigh method. HM samples were analyzed for adiponectin, leptin, fat, lactose, total carbohydrate, lysozyme, and total/whey/casein protein. Linear regression/mixed effect models were used to determine associations between GE/feed variables and HM components/infant anthropometrics/adiposity. Higher FVs were associated with faster (-0.07 [-0.10, -0.03], p < 0.001) GE rate, higher post-feed SVs (0.82 [0.53, 1.12], p < 0.001), and longer GE times (0.24 [0.03, 0.46], p = 0.033). Higher whey protein concentration was associated with higher post-feed SVs (4.99 [0.84, 9.13], p = 0.023). Longer GE time was associated with higher adiponectin concentration (2.29 [0.92, 3.66], p = 0.002) and dose (0.02 [0.01, 0.03], p = 0.005), and lower casein:whey ratio (-65.89 [-107.13, -2.66], p = 0.003). FV and HM composition influence GE and breastfeeding patterns in term breastfed infants.

KEYWORDS:

anthropometrics; appetite hormones; body composition; feed volume; feeding frequency; gastric emptying; human milk; macronutrients; stomach volumes; term breastfed infants; ultrasound

PMID:
28036041
PMCID:
PMC5295059
DOI:
10.3390/nu9010015
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that Medela AG provided an unrestricted research grant to Donna T. Geddes, from which salaries to Donna T. Geddes, Anna R. Hepworth, Wan J. Tie, Ching T. Lai, and Peter E. Hartmann were paid. Medela AG provided a Top-up Scholarship for Zoya Gridneva, and has provided speaker’s fees to Donna T. Geddes for educational lectures. The funding sponsors had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results. Author Leigh C. Ward provides consultancy services to ImpediMed Ltd. ImpediMed Ltd. had no involvement in the inception and conducting of this research or in the writing of the manuscript.

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