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Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017 Jul;61(7). doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201600924. Epub 2017 Feb 27.

Targeted metabolomics reveals differences in the extended postprandial plasma metabolome of healthy subjects after intake of whole-grain rye porridges versus refined wheat bread.

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Department of Food Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
Food and Nutrition Division, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.



We previously found that whole-grain (WG) rye porridges suppressed appetite and improved glucose metabolism. This study aimed to investigate potential plasma metabolites that may be related to differences in those appetite and glucose responses.


Twenty-one health subjects consumed six isocaloric breakfasts in a randomized cross-over study. Plain WG rye porridges (40 and 55 g), rye porridge enriched with different inulin: gluten proportions (9:3 g; 6:6 g; 3:9 g), and a 55 g refined wheat bread (control) were served as part of complete breakfast, followed by a standardized lunch. NMR metabolomics assessed 36 plasma metabolites and short chain fatty acids were measured by GC-MS from baseline up to 8 h. Pre-lunch plasma essential amino acids reflected protein composition and post-lunch plasma short chain fatty acids varied with fiber content in breakfasts. No correlations were observed between measured metabolites and glucose, insulin, or appetite responses.


Differences in protein and fiber contents in breakfasts altered postprandial plasma amino acids and short chain fatty acids, respectively, but were unrelated to appetite and glucose responses. Further studies are warrant to identify the underlying mechanisms for the beneficial effects on appetite and second meal glucose responses after rye-based foods.


Appetite; Dietary fiber; Metabolomics; Plant protein; Second meal effect; Whole-grain rye

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