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J Behav Addict. 2017 Sep 1;6(3):267-270. doi: 10.1556/2006.5.2016.088. Epub 2016 Dec 30.

Scholars' open debate paper on the World Health Organization ICD-11 Gaming Disorder proposal.

Author information

1
1 Center for Computer Games Research, IT University of Copenhagen , Copenhagen, Denmark.
2
2 Department of Psychology, Framingham State University , Framingham, MA, USA.
3
3 UC-Leuven-Limburg, CAD Limburg , Hasselt, Belgium.
4
4 Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health , Baltimore, MD, USA.
5
5 Department of Psychology, Middlesex University , Hendon, London, UK.
6
6 CAD Limburg , Hasselt, Belgium.
7
7 Psychology Department, Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL) , Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
8
8 Department of Applied Educational Science, Umeå University , Umeå, Sweden.
9
9 Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD) & Department of Sociology, Stockholm University , Stockholm, Sweden.
10
10 Department of Psychology, Stetson University , DeLand, FL, USA.
11
11 GGZ Momentum , Veldhoven, The Netherlands.
12
12 Department of Sociology, Stockholm University , Sweden.
13
13 Department of Life Sciences, University of Derby , UK.
14
14 Department of Media & Communication, ERMeCC, Erasmus University Rotterdam , Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
15
15 Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm, Sweden.
16
16 Independent Researcher, USA.
17
17 Department of Psychology, Villanova University , Villanova, PA, USA.
18
18 Liberos , Los Angeles, USA.
19
19 Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford , Oxford, UK.
20
20 Department of Communication, University of Münster , Münster, Germany.
21
21 Psychological Sciences and Technology, UKE, Kore University of Enna , Enna, Italy.
22
22 Discipline of Psychiatry, The University of Sydney , Sydney, Australia.
23
23 Clinical Psychologist/Neuropsychologist, USA.
24
24 Department of Communication Sciences, imec-MICT-Ghent University , Ghent, Belgium.

Abstract

Concerns about problematic gaming behaviors deserve our full attention. However, we claim that it is far from clear that these problems can or should be attributed to a new disorder. The empirical basis for a Gaming Disorder proposal, such as in the new ICD-11, suffers from fundamental issues. Our main concerns are the low quality of the research base, the fact that the current operationalization leans too heavily on substance use and gambling criteria, and the lack of consensus on symptomatology and assessment of problematic gaming. The act of formalizing this disorder, even as a proposal, has negative medical, scientific, public-health, societal, and human rights fallout that should be considered. Of particular concern are moral panics around the harm of video gaming. They might result in premature application of diagnosis in the medical community and the treatment of abundant false-positive cases, especially for children and adolescents. Second, research will be locked into a confirmatory approach, rather than an exploration of the boundaries of normal versus pathological. Third, the healthy majority of gamers will be affected negatively. We expect that the premature inclusion of Gaming Disorder as a diagnosis in ICD-11 will cause significant stigma to the millions of children who play video games as a part of a normal, healthy life. At this point, suggesting formal diagnoses and categories is premature: the ICD-11 proposal for Gaming Disorder should be removed to avoid a waste of public health resources as well as to avoid causing harm to healthy video gamers around the world.

KEYWORDS:

DSM-5; ICD-11; diagnosis; gaming disorder; moral panic; negative implications

PMID:
28033714
PMCID:
PMC5700734
DOI:
10.1556/2006.5.2016.088
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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