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J Pharm Pharmacol. 2017 Apr;69(4):398-405. doi: 10.1111/jphp.12662. Epub 2016 Dec 29.

A mini-review of non-parenteral clonidine preparations for paediatric sedation.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmaceutics, UCL School of Pharmacy, London, UK.
2
Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To provide an overview of non-parenteral clonidine formulations and assess the feasibility of their use for paediatric sedation.

METHODS:

A literature search was conducted using electronic databases and a combination of search terms. Forty articles met the inclusion criteria. Publications were grouped into different dosage forms and assessed for their potential application for sedation of children in intensive care.

KEY FINDINGS:

Several routes of clonidine administration have been investigated for numerous indications in children, including perioperative sedation and analgesia. These include oral liquids, tablets, oral transmucosal systems, nasal sprays and rectal suspensions. Conflicting studies on oral transmucosal clonidine formulations suggest that further research is required to fully establish efficacy. Nasal sprays and rectal suspensions have the advantages of rapid onset of action and potential for dose flexibility, but predictable absorption is difficult to obtain.

CONCLUSIONS:

Provided age-appropriate strengths are available, intravenous formulations remain the most predictable in terms of bioavailability and flexible in terms of dose adjustment. However, as with all routes, down-titration is difficult given the long half-life of clonidine. Oral transmucosal systems, nasal sprays and rectal suspensions have potential in a less acute setting, but significant clinical work is required to elucidate a full pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile.

KEYWORDS:

clonidine; formulation; non-parenteral; paediatric sedation; paediatrics

PMID:
28033670
DOI:
10.1111/jphp.12662
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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