Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Eur J Cancer. 2017 Feb;72:137-143. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2016.11.016. Epub 2016 Dec 26.

Dietary polychlorinated biphenyls, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and incidence of malignant melanoma.

Author information

1
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.
2
Department of Risk and Benefit Assessment, National Food Agency, Box 622, SE-751 26, Uppsala, Sweden.
3
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: Agneta.Akesson@ki.se.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

For malignant melanoma, other risk factors aside from sun exposure have been hardly explored. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-mainly from fatty fish- may affect melanogenesis and promote melanoma progression, while long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids seem to exert antineoplastic actions in melanoma cells.

OBJECTIVES:

We aimed to assess the association of validated estimates of dietary PCB exposure as well as the intake of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA-DHA), accounting for sun habits and skin type, with the risk of malignant melanoma in middle-aged and elderly women.

METHODS:

We included 20,785 women at baseline in 2009 from the prospective population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort. Validated estimates of dietary PCB exposure and EPA-DHA intake were obtained via a food frequency questionnaire. Incident melanoma cases were ascertained through register-linkage.

RESULTS:

During 4.5 years of follow-up, we ascertained 67 incident cases of melanoma. After multivariable adjustments, exposure to dietary PCBs was associated with four-fold increased risk of malignant melanoma (hazard ratio [HR], 4.0 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.2-13; P for trend = 0.02]), while EPA-DHA intake was associated with 80% lower risk (HR, 0.2 [95% CI, 0.1-0.8; P for trend = 0.03]), comparing the highest exposure tertiles with the lowest.

CONCLUSION:

While we found a direct association between dietary PCB exposure and risk of melanoma, EPA-DHA intake showed to have a substantial protective association. Question of benefits and risk from fish consumption is very relevant and further prospective studies in the general population verifying these findings are warranted.

KEYWORDS:

Cancer prevention; Cutaneous malignant melanoma; Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs); Nutritional epidemiology; Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

PMID:
28033525
DOI:
10.1016/j.ejca.2016.11.016
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center