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PLoS One. 2016 Dec 29;11(12):e0169027. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169027. eCollection 2016.

General and Abdominal Obesity Is Related to Physical Activity, Smoking and Sleeping Behaviours and Mediated by the Educational Level: Findings from the ANIBES Study in Spain.

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VALORNUT Research Group, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
VALORNUT Research Group, Department Section of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
CIBEROBN, Biomedical Research Networking Center for Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Carlos III Health Institute, Madrid, Spain.
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, and Institute of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Granada, Campus de la Salud, Armilla, Granada, Spain.
ImFINE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Technical University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences & Medical School, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Edificio Departamental y de Investigación, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain.
Department of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, CEU San Pablo University, Urb. Montepríncipe, Boadilla del Monte, Madrid, Spain.
Spanish Nutrition Foundation (FEN), Madrid, Spain.


The aim of the present study was to analyze the association of socioeconomic (SES) and lifestyle factors, with the conditions of overweight (OW), general (OB) and abdominal obesity (AO) in Spanish adults. A representative sample of 1655 Spanish adults (18 to 65 years) from the ANIBES Study was investigated. Collected data included measured anthropometry (weight, height and waist circumference), demographic and SES data (region and habitant population size, educational level, family income, unemployment rate), physical activity (PA) and other lifestyle factors (sleeping time and frequency of viewing television). OW, OB and AO were determined in each participant. Being male, older than 40 years, and watching television more frequently were associated with higher risk of OB and AO, whereas those with a higher level of education, smokers, and more time in sleeping and in vigorous PA, but not in moderate-vigorous PA, were associated with a lower risk. Living in the Atlantic region and stating no answer to the question regarding family income were also associated with lower risk of AO. Strategies for preventing and reducing OB and AO should consider improving sleeping habits and PA. They should also pay more attention to the most vulnerable groups such as those less educated.

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