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J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2016 Nov-Dec;6(6):529-534. doi: 10.4103/2231-0762.195521.

Psychosocial factors associated with reverse smoking: A qualitative research.

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Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, GITAM Dental College and Hospital, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Department of Prosthodontics and Implantology, Konaseema Institute of Dental Sciences, Amalapuram, East Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Department of Orthodontics, Konaseema Institute of Dental Sciences, Amalapuram, East Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India.
St.Joseph's Dental College, Eluru, Andhra Pradesh, India.



Reverse smoking is a peculiar form of smoking in which the smoker puts the lit end of the cigarette into the mouth and then inhales the smoke. There may be many predisposing factors that influence an individual to cultivate this habit, of which psychosocial habits could be the predominating factor. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the psychosocial factors that influence an individual to undertake this peculiar habit of reverse smoking.


A total of 128 habitual reverse smokers were included in the study, out of which 121 were females and 7 were males. A pretested open-ended questionnaire was used for data collection. Data was collected by direct interview method. Snowball sampling technique was employed in collecting the information regarding regular reverse smokers. Interviews were continued until new information did not provide further insights into the categories. The people who could not understand verbal commands and questions and who did not give an informed consent were excluded from the study. Statistical analysis was done using MS Office Excel using Chi-square test of Goodness of fit.


In contrast to the conventional smokers, various new reasons were identified for starting reverse smoking, of which the most important was that they had learned this habit from their mothers. This was followed by other reasons such as peer pressure, friendship, and cold climatic conditions.


This study provided an insight into the various factors that could influence an individual to take up this peculiar habit of reverse smoking.


Psychosocial factors; reverse smoking; socioeconomic status; tobacco

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