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J Biol Chem. 2017 Feb 10;292(6):2203-2216. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M116.769885. Epub 2016 Dec 28.

New Roles of Syntaxin-1A in Insulin Granule Exocytosis and Replenishment.

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From the Departments of Medicine.
Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada.
Molecular Genetics, and.
From the Departments of Medicine,


In type-2 diabetes (T2D), severely reduced islet syntaxin-1A (Syn-1A) levels contribute to insulin secretory deficiency. We generated β-cell-specific Syn-1A-KO (Syn-1A-βKO) mice to mimic β-cell Syn-1A deficiency in T2D. Glucose tolerance tests showed that Syn-1A-βKO mice exhibited blood glucose elevation corresponding to reduced blood insulin levels. Perifusion of Syn-1A-βKO islets showed impaired first- and second-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) resulting from reduction in readily releasable pool and granule pool refilling. To unequivocally determine the β-cell exocytotic defects caused by Syn-1A deletion, EM and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy showed that Syn-1A-KO β-cells had a severe reduction in the number of secretory granules (SGs) docked onto the plasma membrane (PM) at rest and reduced SG recruitment to the PM after glucose stimulation, the latter indicating defects in replenishment of releasable pools required to sustain second-phase GSIS. Whereas reduced predocked SG fusion accounted for reduced first-phase GSIS, selective reduction of exocytosis of short-dock (but not no-dock) newcomer SGs accounted for the reduced second-phase GSIS. These Syn-1A actions on newcomer SGs were partly mediated by Syn-1A interactions with newcomer SG VAMP8.


SNARE proteins; Syntaxin-1A; Type 2 diabetes; docking; exocytosis; granule replenishment; insulin secretion; newcomer insulin granule; transgenic mice

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