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Ann Oncol. 2017 Mar 1;28(3):547-554. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdw669.

Rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR (RICTOR) amplification defines a subset of advanced gastric cancer and is sensitive to AZD2014-mediated mTORC1/2 inhibition.

Author information

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
The Angeles Clinic and Research Institute, Los Angeles, USA.
Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, USA.
Samsung Genome Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
Department of Pathology and Translational Genomics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
The Innovative Cancer Medicine Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.



Targeting oncogenic genomic aberrations is an established therapeutic strategy in multiple tumor types. Molecular classification has uncovered a number of novel targets, and rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR (RICTOR) amplification has been identified in lung cancer. Further investigation assessing the therapeutic potential of RICTOR amplification as a novel target across advanced cancers is needed.

Patients and methods:

Tumor samples from 640 patients with metastatic solid tumors, primarily gastrointestinal and lung cancers were prospectively subjected to a next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay to identify molecular targets. Samples with NGS-detected RICTOR amplification were confirmed with FISH. A RICTOR-amplified patient-derived cell (PDC) line was generated and used to investigate the effectiveness of selective AKT, mTORC1, and mTORC1/2 inhibition.


NGS identified 13 (2%) of 640 patients with RICTOR-amplified tumors (6 gastric, 3 NSCLC, 1 SCLC, 1 CRC, 1 sarcoma, 1 MUO). Of the 13 patients, seven patients had RICTOR protein overexpression by IHC. The prevalence of RICTOR amplification in gastric cancer by NGS was 3.8% (6/160). FISH testing confirmed amplification (RICTOR/control‚ÄČ>2) in 5/13 (38%) of samples, including four gastric cancers and one lung cancer. Treatment of a RICTOR amplified PDC with a selective AKT (AZD5363), selective mTORC1 (everolimus), dual mTORC1/2 (AZD2014), and the multi-target kinase inhibitor pazopanib demonstrated preferential sensitivity to the mTORC1/2 inhibitor (AZD2014). Knockdown of RICTOR reversed PDC sensitivity to AZD2014, validating the importance of RICTOR amplification to the PDC line.


RICTOR amplification is a rare but therapeutically relevant genomic alteration across solid tumors. Our results support further pre-clinical and clinical investigation with AZD2014 in RICTOR amplified gastric cancer and highlights the importance of genomic profiling.


AZD2014; RICTOR; gastric cancer; mTORC1/2; next-generation sequencing

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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