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Placenta. 2017 Jun;54:2-9. doi: 10.1016/j.placenta.2016.12.012. Epub 2016 Dec 14.

Review: Placental mitochondrial function and structure in gestational disorders.

Author information

1
School of Medical Science, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus Southport, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address: o.holland@griffith.edu.au.
2
University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Queensland, Australia; School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia.
3
Mater Research Institute, The University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, Queensland, Australia; School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia.
4
School of Medical Science, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus Southport, Queensland, Australia.

Abstract

The aetiology of many gestational disorders is still unknown. However, insufficient trans-placental nutrient and oxygen transfer due to abnormal placentation is characteristic of several pathologies, and may alter the function of placental mitochondria. Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that respond to a wide range of stimuli - such as physiological changes in cellular energy demands or various pathologies - by reshaping via fusion or fission, increasing/decreasing in number, altering oxidative phosphorylation, and signalling cellular functions such as apoptosis. Mitochondrial function is integral to tissue functions including energy production, metabolism, and regulation of various cellular responses including response to oxidative stress. This review details the functions of placental mitochondria and investigates mitochondrial function and structure in gestational disorders including preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Placental mitochondrial dysfunction may be critical in a range of gestational disorders which have important implications for maternal and fetal/offspring health.

KEYWORDS:

Diabetes; Intrauterine growth restriction; Mitochondria; Obesity; Oxidative stress; Preeclampsia

PMID:
28024805
DOI:
10.1016/j.placenta.2016.12.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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