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J Bone Miner Res. 2017 May;32(5):1082-1089. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.3068. Epub 2017 Jan 19.

Assessment of Sex Differences in Fracture Risk Among Patients With Anorexia Nervosa: A Population-Based Cohort Study Using The Health Improvement Network.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA.
2
Department of Pediatrics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Abstract

Though previous studies have demonstrated an increased fracture risk in females with anorexia nervosa (AN), fracture risk in males is not well characterized. The objective of this study was to examine sex differences in fracture risk and site-specific fracture incidence in AN. We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study using The Health Improvement Network (THIN; a large database of anonymized electronic medical records collected at primary care clinics throughout the United Kingdom). The median calendar year for the start of the observation period was 2004-2005. We identified 9239 females and 556 males <60 years of age with AN, and 97,889 randomly selected sex-, age-, and practice-matched participants without eating disorders (92,329 females and 5560 males). Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for incident fracture. Median age at start of observation was 29.8 years in females and 30.2 years in males. The HR for fracture associated with AN differed by sex and age (interaction p = 0.002). Females with AN had an increased fracture risk at all ages (HR, 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45 to 1.75). AN was associated with a higher risk of fracture among males >40 years of age (HR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.32 to 4.90; p = 0.005) but not among males ≤40 years. Females with AN had a higher risk of fracture at nearly all anatomic sites. The greatest excess fracture risk was noted at the hip/femur (HR, 5.59; 95% CI, 3.44 to 9.09) and pelvis (HR, 4.54; 95% CI, 2.42 to 8.50) in females and at the vertebrae (HR, 7.25; 95% CI, 1.21 to 43.45) for males with AN. AN was associated with higher incident fracture risk in females across all age groups and in males >40 years old. Sites of highest fracture risk include the hip/femur and pelvis in females and vertebrae in males with AN.

KEYWORDS:

ANOREXIA NERVOSA; BONE DEFICIT; BONE FRACTURES; EATING DISORDERS; UNITED KINGDOM

PMID:
28019700
PMCID:
PMC5413380
DOI:
10.1002/jbmr.3068
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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