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J Food Sci Technol. 2016 Oct;53(10):3761-3769. doi: 10.1007/s13197-016-2361-2. Epub 2016 Oct 28.

Rheological properties and bread quality of frozen sweet dough with added xanthan and different freezing rate.

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Department of Food Science and Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM), PO Box 91775-1163, Mashhad, Iran.
Iranian Academic Center for Education Culture and Research (ACECR), Khorasan Razavi, Mashhad, Iran.


In this paper the effects of frozen storage time, xanthan gum and rate of freezing on frozen sweet dough properties and unfermented bread quality was investigated. Results revealed that the water holding capacity, WHC, K1 (stress decay rate) and K2 (residual stress at the end of the stress relaxation experiment) values of frozen dough decreased with increasing frozen storage time and decreasing freezing rate; while the lowest values for these parameters were obtained for samples without xanthan gum. The amount of unfreezable water increased and freezable water decreased with addition of xanthan gum. Glass transition temperature for fresh or frozen sweet were around -37 and -39 °C, respectively. Addition of xanthan gum increased the glass transition temperature of fresh and fozen sweet dough. Firmness and gumminess of sweet bread increased during frozen storage which led to lower specific volume of frozen sweet bread. Increasing freezing rate and addition of xanthan gum to dough formulation improved the texture and specific volume of the final bread.


DSC; Frozen storage; Frozen sweet dough; Stress relaxtion; TPA; WHC

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