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Fitoterapia. 2017 Mar;117:6-10. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2016.12.006. Epub 2016 Dec 22.

Ilex paraguariensis and its main component chlorogenic acid inhibit fructose formation of advanced glycation endproducts with amino acids at conditions compatible with those in the digestive system.

Author information

1
Glycation, Oxidation and Disease Laboratory, Dept. of Research, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Touro University-California, Vallejo, CA, USA.
2
Glycation, Oxidation and Disease Laboratory, Dept. of Research, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Touro University-California, Vallejo, CA, USA. Electronic address: alejandro.gugliucci@tu.edu.

Abstract

We have previously shown that Ilex paraguariensis extracts have potent antiglycation actions. Associations of excess free fructose consumption with inflammatory diseases have been proposed to be mediated through in situ enteral formation of fructose AGEs, which, after being absorbed may contribute to inflammatory diseases via engagement of RAGE. In this proof of principle investigation we show fluorescent AGE formation between amino acids (Arg, Lys, Gly at 10-50mM) and fructose (10-50mM) under time, temperature, pH and concentrations compatible with the digestive system lumen and its inhibition by Ilex paraguariensis extracts. Incubation of amino acids with fructose (but not glucose) leads to a time dependent formation of AGE fluorescence, already apparent after just 1h incubation, a time frame well compatible with the digestive process. Ilex paraguariensis (mate tea) inhibited AGE formation by 83% at 50μl/ml (p<0.001). Its main phenolics, caffeic acid and cholorogenic acid were as potent as aminoguanidine-a specific antiglycation agent: IC50 of 0.9mM (p<0.001). Our results suggest that AGE adducts form between fructose and amino acids at times and concentrations plausibly found in the intestines. The reaction is inhibited by mate tea and its individual phenolics (caffeic acid and chlorogenic acids). The study provides the first evidence for the proposed mechanism to explain epidemiological correlations between excess fructose consumption and inflammatory diseases. Enteral fructose-AGE formation would be inhibited by co-intake of Ilex paraguariensis, and potentially other beverages, fruits and vegetables that contain comparable concentrations of phenolics as in IP (mate tea).

KEYWORDS:

Advanced glycation; Agave syrup; Asthma; Chlorogenic acid; Fructose; Fructositis; High fructose corn syrup; Ilex paraguariensis; Inflammation; Receptor for advanced glycation end products

PMID:
28012919
DOI:
10.1016/j.fitote.2016.12.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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