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Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Feb;86:405-413. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.12.046. Epub 2016 Dec 21.

Regulatory mechanism of mineral-balanced deep sea water on hypocholesterolemic effects in HepG2 hepatic cells.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacology and Intractable Disease Research Center, School of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju, Republic of Korea.
2
Seawater Utilization Plant Research Institute of Ships & Oean Engineering (KRISO) Goseong, Republic of Korea.
3
Department of Pharmacology and Intractable Disease Research Center, School of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: namks@dongguk.ac.kr.

Abstract

Several previous studies have shown the benefits of deep sea water (DSW) in lipid metabolism. However, the effects of DSW on cellular cholesterol accumulation and synthesis induced by high glucose or free fatty acid plus high glucose [4.5g/L] (FFA/glucose) have not been fully elucidated to date. Herein, we showed the effects of mineral-balanced DSW [magnesium (Mg):calcium (Ca)=3:1] (MB-DSW) on cholesterol metabolism induced by high glucose or FFA/glucose in HepG2 hepatic cells. Moreover, the effects of high ratio Mg DSW [Mg:Ca=40:1] (Mg40) were also investigated. MB-DSW and Mg40 prevented the increase of cellular total cholesterol content in high glucose- or FFA/glucose-treated HepG2 hepatic cells. Furthermore, the inhibition by MB-DSW was closely related to the down-regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutatryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) expression and an increase in the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, leading to decreased cholesterol synthesis in both high glucose- and FFA/glucose-treated conditions. However, this effect was not seen in case of Mg40. In addition, both MB-DSW and Mg40 induced the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and diminished the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) transcriptions in high glucose-treated HepG2 hepatic cells. This result demonstrates that the hypocholesterolemic effects of MB-DSW and Mg40 are mediated with LDL-c clearance through increases of LDLR and its transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α), sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1a, and SREBP-2, mRNA synthesis and suppression of PCSK9 transcription. Moreover, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 transcription was enhanced by MB-DSW and Mg40 without decreasing the expression of Apo B in high glucose-treated HepG2 hepatic cells. However, ApoA1 protein expression was not changed. Taken together, the present investigation suggests that DSW may prevent the high glucose- or FFA/glucose-induced increase of cellular cholesterol levels by inducing LDLR and ApoA1 transcriptions and inhibiting PCSK9 mRNA expression in HepG2 hepatic cells. Additionally, the ratio of Mg in DSW is an important factor that determines whether HMGCR expression and/or AMPK phosphorylation participate in the hypocholesterolemic effects of DSW.

KEYWORDS:

AMPK; HMG-CoA reductase; Hypercholesterolemia; Lipid metabolism; Mineral-balanced deep sea water

PMID:
28012395
DOI:
10.1016/j.biopha.2016.12.046
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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