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J Physiol Pharmacol. 2016 Oct;67(5):667-676.

Effects of time of day and the wingate test on appetite perceptions, food intake and plasma levels of adipokines.

Author information

1
Department of Ergonomics and Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Cracow, Poland. mpbilski@cyf-kr.edu.pl.
2
Department of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Cracow, Poland.
3
Department of Ergonomics and Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Cracow, Poland.
4
Department of Disaster Medicine and Emergency Care, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Cracow, Poland.

Abstract

It has been demonstrated that several aspects of adipose-related physiology including adipokine release, exhibit daily oscillations. Physical exercise exerts a strong influence on adipokine release and a possible reverse disruption of peripheral circadian clocks. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of time of day and the Wingate test on appetite perception, food intake and plasma levels of adipokines. Twenty-four moderately active non-smoking males (mean ± S.D. age: 27.1 ± 3.1 years; height: 1.79 ± 0.1 m; weight: 76.1 ± 11.7 kg) were recruited for this study and divided in two groups; one fed with an ad libitum test meal and another one without an ad libitum test meal. Each subject participated in the following studies performed at 11:00 and 23:00 hours on separate days: 1) Exercise study (ES): a 30-second Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT), and 2) sedentary study (SS). Subjects rated their appetite perceptions (hunger and prospective food consumption) on a 100-milimeter visual analogue scale (VAS) at baseline, after exercise, after test meal and during the postprandial/control period. At those time points blood samples were obtained for the measurement of plasma leptin, visfatin and apelin concentrations. Appetite perception and energy intake results at test meal decreased in response to WAnT in comparison with sedentary subjects. Time of day had no statistically significant effect on energy intake but the appetite perception score after test meal at 24:00 hours was statistically higher than that after test meal at 12:00 hours. No significant differences in the tested plasma adipokine concentrations between the trials existed at baseline, however, all plasma adipokine levels at 24:00 hours were higher than those at 12:00 hours. Plasma apelin concentrations after WAnT were significantly higher than its pre-exercise value at 12:00 hours, unlike those at 24:00 hours. Sedentary experiments showed a modest, yet significant, rise in plasma apelin levels after the test meal at 12:00 hours but not after the one at 24:00 hours. There were no significant changes in plasma leptin concentrations after exercise or test meal but a significant decrease in plasma visfatin concentrations after exercise intervention both at the 12:00 hours test and the 24:00 hours test has been observed. Test meals caused a significant rise in visfatin concentrations in sedentary, but not exercise series, in the daytime and nighttime tests. We conclude that time of day is an important aspect to consider in the relationships between exercise, metabolism and appetite. Further studies are needed to explain the specific mechanisms underlying the effects of acute exercise on postprandial physiology at different times of the day.

PMID:
28011947
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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