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DNA Res. 2017 Feb 1;24(1):71-80. doi: 10.1093/dnares/dsw049.

Genome analysis of Hibiscus syriacus provides insights of polyploidization and indeterminate flowering in woody plants.

Author information

Korean Bioinformation Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 34141, Korea.
Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.
Plant Systems Engineering Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon 34141, Korea.
Department of Agricultural Plant Science, Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea.
National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Rural Development Administration, Jeonju 54875, Korea.
Division of Bioscience and Bioinformatics, Myongji University, Yongin 17058, Korea.
Department of Horticultural Science, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea.
Green Plant Institute, Yongin 446-908, Korea.
Department of Agriculture and Life Industry, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.


Hibiscus syriacus (L.) (rose of Sharon) is one of the most widespread garden shrubs in the world. We report a draft of the H. syriacus genome comprised of a 1.75 Gb assembly that covers 92% of the genome with only 1.7% (33 Mb) gap sequences. Predicted gene modeling detected 87,603 genes, mostly supported by deep RNA sequencing data. To define gene family distribution among relatives of H. syriacus, orthologous gene sets containing 164,660 genes in 21,472 clusters were identified by OrthoMCL analysis of five plant species, including H. syriacus, Arabidopsis thaliana, Gossypium raimondii, Theobroma cacao and Amborella trichopoda. We inferred their evolutionary relationships based on divergence times among Malvaceae plant genes and found that gene families involved in flowering regulation and disease resistance were more highly divergent and expanded in H. syriacus than in its close relatives, G. raimondii (DD) and T. cacao. Clustered gene families and gene collinearity analysis revealed that two recent rounds of whole-genome duplication were followed by diploidization of the H. syriacus genome after speciation. Copy number variation and phylogenetic divergence indicates that WGDs and subsequent diploidization led to unequal duplication and deletion of flowering-related genes in H. syriacus and may affect its unique floral morphology.


Diploidization; Hibiscus syriacus; Homeolog; Multivoltinism; Whole Genome Duplication

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