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J Sleep Res. 2017 Aug;26(4):498-509. doi: 10.1111/jsr.12488. Epub 2016 Dec 23.

Daily antecedents and consequences of nightly sleep.

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Department of Biobehavioral Health, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.
Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, Fort Collons, CO, USA.
Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.
Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.


Sleep can serve as both cause and consequence of individuals' everyday experiences. We built upon prior studies of the correlates of sleep, which have relied primarily on cross-sectional data, to examine the antecedents and consequences of sleep using a daily diary design. Specifically, we assessed the temporal sequence between nightly sleep and daily psychosocial stressors. Parents employed in a US information technology company (n = 102) completed eight consecutive daily diaries at both baseline and 1 year later. In telephone interviews each evening, participants reported on the previous night's sleep hours, sleep quality and sleep latency. They also reported daily work-to-family conflict and time inadequacy (i.e. perceptions of not having enough time) for their child and for themselves to engage in exercise. Multi-level models testing lagged and non-lagged effects simultaneously revealed that sleep hours and sleep quality were associated with next-day consequences of work-to-family conflict and time inadequacy, whereas psychosocial stressors as antecedents did not predict sleep hours or quality that night. For sleep latency, the opposite temporal order emerged: on days with more work-to-family conflict or time inadequacy for child and self than usual, participants reported longer sleep latencies than usual. An exception to this otherwise consistent pattern was that time inadequacy for child also preceded shorter sleep hours and poorer sleep quality that night. The results highlight the utility of a daily diary design for capturing the temporal sequences linking sleep and psychosocial stressors.


daily stressors; family; health behaviors; sleep parameters; temporal directionality; work-family conflict

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