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Expert Opin Ther Pat. 2017 May;27(5):607-620. doi: 10.1080/13543776.2017.1276568. Epub 2017 Jan 5.

Novel leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitors (2012-2016) as anti-inflammatory agents.

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a Department of Pharmaceutical/Medicinal Chemistry , Institute of Pharmacy, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena , Jena , Germany.


Leukotrienes (LTs) are lipid mediators produced from arachidonic acid with a broad variety of bioactivities in allergy and inflammation. The biosynthesis of LTs mainly involves 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and its 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP), LTA4 hydrolase and LTC4 synthase that all may represent potential targets for LT biosynthesis inhibitors. Areas covered: We introduce the LT biosynthetic pathway and its cellular regulation, the diverse biological actions of LTs and their receptors, and we briefly describe the pharmacological strategies for suppression of LT formation as well as the classes of current LT biosynthesis inhibitors. The main focus is placed on the comprehensive discussion of recently reported inhibitors of 5-LO, FLAP, LTA4 hydrolase and LTC4 synthase, based on literature search (PubMed and Thomson Innovation Patents Searches), covering 2012-2016. Expert opinion: Although many new series of 5-LO inhibitors have been presented without patenting, essentially by academia, novel FLAP inhibitors (many patented) are most advanced in clinical development and are apparently the focus of pharmaceutical companies. Only few novel inhibitors of LTA4 hydrolase and LTC4 synthase were reported. Major issues in the development of LT synthesis inhibitors are related to loss of potency in biological relevant environment, poor pharmacokinetics, lack of oral efficacy, and side effects.


5-lipoxygenase; 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein; Inflammation; leukotriene; leukotriene A4 hydrolase; leukotriene C4 synthase

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