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Sci Rep. 2016 Dec 22;6:39734. doi: 10.1038/srep39734.

Genomes of coral dinoflagellate symbionts highlight evolutionary adaptations conducive to a symbiotic lifestyle.

Author information

1
Red Sea Research Center, Division of Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering (BESE), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia.
2
Centre for Organismal Studies, Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
3
Institute of Microbiology, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 4, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland.
4
Computational Bioscience Research Center (CBRC), Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering Division (CEMSE), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia.
5
KAUST Environmental Epigenetics Program (KEEP), Division of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia.
6
GEOMAR Department: Evolutionary Ecology of Marine Fishes, GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany.
7
Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EH, UK.
8
Personal Genomics Institute, Genome Research Foundation, Suwon, Republic of Korea.
9
Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.

Abstract

Despite half a century of research, the biology of dinoflagellates remains enigmatic: they defy many functional and genetic traits attributed to typical eukaryotic cells. Genomic approaches to study dinoflagellates are often stymied due to their large, multi-gigabase genomes. Members of the genus Symbiodinium are photosynthetic endosymbionts of stony corals that provide the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Their smaller genome sizes provide an opportunity to interrogate evolution and functionality of dinoflagellate genomes and endosymbiosis. We sequenced the genome of the ancestral Symbiodinium microadriaticum and compared it to the genomes of the more derived Symbiodinium minutum and Symbiodinium kawagutii and eukaryote model systems as well as transcriptomes from other dinoflagellates. Comparative analyses of genome and transcriptome protein sets show that all dinoflagellates, not only Symbiodinium, possess significantly more transmembrane transporters involved in the exchange of amino acids, lipids, and glycerol than other eukaryotes. Importantly, we find that only Symbiodinium harbor an extensive transporter repertoire associated with the provisioning of carbon and nitrogen. Analyses of these transporters show species-specific expansions, which provides a genomic basis to explain differential compatibilities to an array of hosts and environments, and highlights the putative importance of gene duplications as an evolutionary mechanism in dinoflagellates and Symbiodinium.

PMID:
28004835
PMCID:
PMC5177918
DOI:
10.1038/srep39734
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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