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Chem Res Toxicol. 2017 Jan 17;30(1):270-294. doi: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.6b00343. Epub 2016 Dec 21.

Thirdhand Smoke: New Evidence, Challenges, and Future Directions.

Author information

1
Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Departments of Psychiatry and Medicine, University of California , San Francisco, California 94143, United States.
2
Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, Departments of Medicine, and Bioengineering & Therapeutic Sciences, University of California , San Francisco, California 94143, United States.
3
Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California , San Francisco, California 94143, United States.
4
Indoor Environment Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory , Berkeley, California 94720, United States.
5
Biological Systems & Engineering, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory , Berkeley, California 94720, United States.
6
Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California Riverside 92521, United States.
7
Department of Psychology, San Diego State University , San Diego, California 92182, United States.
8
Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University , San Diego, California 92182, United States.
9
Department of Preventive Medicine, The Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California , Los Angeles, California 90089, United States.
10
Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California , San Francisco, California 94143, United States.
11
Department of Geosciences, University of Malta , Msida, MSD 2080, Malta.
12
The Center for Integrative Research on Childhood Leukemia and the Environment, School of Public Health, University of California , Berkeley, 94704, United States.

Abstract

Thirdhand smoke (THS) is the contamination that persists after secondhand tobacco smoke has been emitted into air. It refers to the tobacco-related gases and particles that become embedded in materials, such as the carpet, walls, furniture, blankets, and toys. THS is not strictly smoke, but chemicals that adhere to surfaces from which they can be released back into the air, undergo chemical transformations and/or accumulate. Currently, the hazards of THS are not as well documented as the hazards of secondhand smoke (SHS). In this Perspective, we describe the distribution and chemical changes that occur as SHS is transformed into THS, studies of environmental contamination by THS, human exposure studies, toxicology studies using animal models and in vitro systems, possible approaches for avoiding exposure, remediation of THS contamination, and priorities for further research.

PMID:
28001376
PMCID:
PMC5501723
DOI:
10.1021/acs.chemrestox.6b00343
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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