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J Pain Res. 2016 Dec 8;9:1197-1204. eCollection 2016.

Dysesthesia symptoms produced by sensorimotor incongruence in healthy volunteers: an electroencephalogram study.

Author information

1
Department of Neurorehabilitation, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kio University, Nara; Department of Rehabilitation, Watanabe Hospital, Aichi.
2
Department of Neurorehabilitation Research Center, Kio University, Nara.
3
Department of Physical Therapy, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kyoto Tachibana University, Kyoto, Japan.
4
Department of Neurorehabilitation, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kio University, Nara; Department of Neurorehabilitation Research Center, Kio University, Nara.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Pathological pain such as phantom limb pain is caused by sensorimotor incongruence. Several studies with healthy participants have clearly indicated that dysesthesia, which is similar to pathological pain, is caused by incongruence between proprioception and/or motor intention and visual feedback. It is not clear to what extent dysesthesia may be caused by incongruence between motor intention and visual feedback or by incongruence between proprioception and visual feedback. The aim of this study was to clarify the neurophysiology of these factors by analyzing electroencephalograms (EEGs).

METHODS:

In total, 18 healthy participants were recruited for this study. Participants were asked to perform repetitive flexion/extension exercises with their elbows in a congruent/incongruent position while viewing the activity in a mirror. EEGs were performed to determine cortical activation during sensorimotor congruence and incongruence.

RESULTS:

In the high-frequency alpha band (10-12 Hz), numeric rating scale scores of a feeling of peculiarity were significantly correlated with event-related desynchronization/synchronization under the incongruence and proprioception conditions associated with motor intention and visual feedback (right inferior parietal region; r=-0.63, P<0.01) and between proprioception and visual feedback (right temporoparietal region; r=-0.49 and r=-0.50, P<0.05). In these brain regions, there was a region in which incongruence between proprioception and visual feedback and between motor intention and visual feedback caused an increase in activity.

CONCLUSION:

The present findings suggest that neural mechanisms of dysesthesia are caused by incongruence between proprioception associated with motor intention and visual feedback and, in particular, are a result of incongruence between proprioception only and visual feedback.

KEYWORDS:

dysesthesia; electroencephalogram; event-related desynchronization/synchronization; high-frequency alpha band; sensorimotor incongruence

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