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Psychiatry Res. 2017 Feb;248:20-27. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.12.014. Epub 2016 Dec 13.

Changes in cytokine and chemokine expression distinguish dysthymic disorder from major depression and healthy controls.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, Beitou Branch, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.
2
Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC; Department of Neurology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.
3
Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC; Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.
4
Department of Psychiatry, Beitou Branch, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC; Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address: lcsyfw@gmail.com.

Abstract

An important area of uncertainty is the inflammatory degree to which depression occurring as part of dysthymic disorder may differ from major depression. Using a 27-plex cytokine assay, we analyzed the serum of 12 patients with dysthymic disorder, 12 with major depression, and an age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched control group of 20 healthy volunteers. We observed that patients with dysthymic disorder exhibited aberrant cytokine and chemokine expression compared with healthy controls and patients with major depression. The levels of interferon-γ-induced protein 10 highly predicted dysthymic disorder. Network analyses revealed that in patients with dysthymic disorder, the vertices were more sparsely connected and adopted a more hub-like architecture, and the connections from neighboring vertices of interleukin 2 and eotaxin-1 increased. After treatment with the same antidepressant, there was no difference between dysthymic disorder and major depression regarding any of the cytokines or chemokines analyzed. For dysthymic disorder, changes in the levels of interferon-γ-induced protein 10 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α correlated with depression improvement. The findings suggest that the cytokine milieu in dysthymic disorder differs either at the level of individual expression or in network patterns. Moreover, chemokines play an important role in driving the pathophysiology of dysthymic disorder.

KEYWORDS:

Cytokine network; Dysthymia; Eotaxin-1; Inflammation; Interferon-γ-induced protein 10

PMID:
27992767
DOI:
10.1016/j.psychres.2016.12.014
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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