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Clin Nutr. 2018 Feb;37(1):189-194. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2016.11.023. Epub 2016 Dec 2.

Dietary patterns at 4 years old: Association with appetite-related eating behaviours in 7 year-old children.

Author information

1
ISPUP-EPIUnit, University of Porto, Portugal.
2
ISPUP-EPIUnit, University of Porto, Portugal; Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade do Porto, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Predictive Medicine and Public Health, Portugal.
3
Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
4
ISPUP-EPIUnit, University of Porto, Portugal; Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade do Porto, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Predictive Medicine and Public Health, Portugal. Electronic address: acmatos@med.up.pt.

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

A possible relationship between children's dietary intake and certain aspects of eating behaviours has been documented, but most studies are cross-sectional and do not consider the complexity of the diet. The aim of this study was to quantify the association between dietary patterns established at 4 years old and appetite-related eating behaviours identified at 7 years old.

METHODS:

Participants are children from the Generation XXI population-based birth cohort. Trained interviewers collected data at birth, 4 and 7 years old on socio-demographics, health and lifestyles, and anthropometrics. At 4 years old, diet was assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire and three dietary patterns were identified by Latent Class Analysis: 'Healthier', 'Snacking' and 'Energy Dense Foods' (EDF). A Portuguese version of the original Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was self-completed by mothers at 7 year-old. This version has previously shown good psychometric properties and the 8 CEBQ sub-domains were combined into two wider dimensions: Appetite Restraint and Appetite Disinhibition. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the associations after adjustment for maternal characteristics (n = 4358). Interaction effects were tested.

RESULTS:

Children belonging to the 'Snacking' (β = 0.329, 95%CI: 0.265; 0.393) and to the 'EDF' (β = 0.138, 95%CI: 0.098; 0.179) dietary patterns at 4 years old scored increasingly higher, respectively, on Appetite Restraint and Appetite Disinhibition dimensions at 7 years old, comparatively to children in the 'Healthier' dietary pattern. Maternal BMI before pregnancy modified the 'Snacking' pattern associations; they were stronger in children from underweight/normal weight mothers for Appetite Restraint and present only among overweight/obese mothers for Appetite Disinhibition.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study suggests that children following less healthy dietary patterns early in life have more often disordered eating behaviours in later childhood. Maternal weight status may influence these associations.

KEYWORDS:

CEBQ; Children; Cohort studies; Feeding behaviours; Food habits

PMID:
27989381
DOI:
10.1016/j.clnu.2016.11.023

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