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Aquat Toxicol. 2017 Feb;183:28-37. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2016.12.010. Epub 2016 Dec 12.

Energy metabolism and metabolomics response of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to sulfide toxicity.

Author information

1
Agriculture Ministry Key Laboratory of Healthy Freshwater Aquaculture, Key Laboratory of Freshwater Aquaculture Genetic and Breeding of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Institute of Freshwater Fisheries, Huzhou 313001, China; School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China.
2
School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China. Electronic address: ecli@bio.ecnu.edu.cn.
3
School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China.
4
Agriculture Ministry Key Laboratory of Healthy Freshwater Aquaculture, Key Laboratory of Freshwater Aquaculture Genetic and Breeding of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Institute of Freshwater Fisheries, Huzhou 313001, China.
5
School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide SA 5001, Australia.
6
Agriculture Ministry Key Laboratory of Healthy Freshwater Aquaculture, Key Laboratory of Freshwater Aquaculture Genetic and Breeding of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Institute of Freshwater Fisheries, Huzhou 313001, China. Electronic address: guzhimin2006@163.com.

Abstract

The toxicity and poisoning mechanisms of sulfide were studied in Litopenaeus vannamei from the perspective of energy metabolism and metabolomics. The lethal concentrations of sulfide in L. vannamei (LC50) at 24h, 48h, 72h, and 96h were determined. Sulfide at a concentration of 0, 1/10 (425.5μg/L), and 1/5 (851μg/L) of the LC50 at 96h was used to test the metabolic responses of L. vannamei for 21days. The chronic exposure of shrimp to a higher sulfide concentration of 851μg/L decreased shrimp survival but did not affect weight gain or the hepatopancreas index. The glycogen content in the hepatopancreas and muscle and the activity of hepatopancreas cytochrome C oxidase of the shrimp exposed to all sulfide concentrations were significantly lower, and the serum glucose and lactic acid levels and lactic acid dehydrogenase activity were significantly lower than those in the control. Metabolomics assays showed that shrimp exposed to sulfide had lower amounts of serum pyruvic acid, succinic acid, glycine, alanine, and proline in the 425.5μg/L group and phosphate, succinic acid, beta-alanine, serine, and l-histidine in the 851μg/L group than in the control. Chronic sulfide exposure could disturb protein synthesis in shrimp but enhance gluconeogenesis and substrate absorption for ATP synthesis and tricarboxylic acid cycles to provide extra energy to cope with sulfide stress. Chronic sulfide exposure could adversely affect the health status of L. vannamei, as indicated by the high amounts of serum n-ethylmaleamic acid, pyroglutamic acid, aspartic acid and phenylalanine relative to the control. This study indicates that chronic exposure of shrimp to sulfide can decrease health and lower survival through functional changes in gluconeogenesis, protein synthesis and energy metabolism.

KEYWORDS:

Chronic toxicity; Cytochrome C oxidase; Growth; Lethal concentration; Metabolite

PMID:
27988416
DOI:
10.1016/j.aquatox.2016.12.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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