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Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Jan 15;64(2):175-183. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciw720. Epub 2016 Oct 21.

Long-term Impact of a "3 + 0" Schedule for 7- and 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines on Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Australia, 2002-2014.

Author information

National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance for Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Westmead;
Discipline of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Sydney, and.
School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney.
National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance for Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Westmead.
Office of Health Protection, Australian Government Department of Health, Canberra.
Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Princess Margaret Hospital, School of Paediatrics and Child Health and Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia, Perth.
Centre for Disease Control, Department of Health, Darwin, Northern Territory; and.
School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.



Australia introduced universal 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) from 2005, replaced by 13-valent PCV (PCV13) in 2011, uniquely among high-income countries giving doses at 2, 4, and 6 months (3 + 0 schedule). Data on impact of a timely 3 + 0 PCV schedule with high coverage are sparse, with none for PCV13.


We used national surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) from 2002 for baseline and appropriate later comparison periods to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) by serotype and age using a Poisson model. PCV coverage was assessed from the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register.


After 9 years of timely 3-dose PCV coverage of >92%, all-age IPD in Australia almost halved (IRR, 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], .50-.57), but differed by PCV era. Reductions in IPD due to vaccine serotypes from PCV7 (IRR, 0.20; CI, .17-.22) were about 2-fold greater than for IPD due to extra serotypes in PCV13 (13v-non7v) in a similar period (IRR, 0.58; CI, .51-.66). Post-PCV13 declines in serotype 19A IPD in persons aged <2 years (IRR, 0.23; CI, .13-.35) and ≥2 years (IRR, 0.35; CI, .28-.44) differed from other 13v-non7v IPD (IRR, 0.73; CI, .35-1.48 for those aged <2 years and IRR, 0.96; CI, .81-1.15 for those ≥2 years). Meningitis due to vaccine serotypes nearly disappeared in children eligible for 3 PCV13 doses. IPD due to non-PCV13 serotypes increased by 30% compared with 76% for non-PCV7 serotypes in equivalent period of vaccine use.


Reductions in vaccine-type IPD post-PCV13 were inferior to Australian experience with PCV7 and reports from high-income countries giving a PCV booster dose. Applicability of findings to other settings would depend on age of IPD onset, serotype profile, and timeliness of vaccination.


Australia; PCV13; PCV7; invasive pneumococcal disease; vaccine impact.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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