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Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017 Feb 15;442:98-105. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2016.12.013. Epub 2016 Dec 13.

Phytosteroids beyond estrogens: Regulators of reproductive and endocrine function in natural products.

Author information

1
Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Center for Biomolecular Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
2
Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Center for Biomolecular Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address: joannab@uic.edu.

Abstract

Foods and botanical supplements can interfere with the endocrine system through the presence of phytosteroids - chemicals that interact with steroids receptors. Phytoestrogens are well studied, but compounds such as kaempferol, apigenin, genistein, ginsenoside Rf, and glycyrrhetinic acid have been shown to interact with non-estrogen nuclear receptors. These compounds can have agonist, antagonist, or mixed agonist/antagonist activity depending on compound, receptor, cell line or tissue, and concentration. Some phytosteroids have also been shown to inhibit steroid metabolizing enzymes, resulting in biological effects through altered endogenous steroid concentrations. An interesting example, compound A (4-[1-chloro-2-(methylamino)ethyl]phenyl acetate hydrochloride (1:1)) is a promising selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator (SGRM) based on a phytosteroid isolated from Salsola tuberculatiformis Botschantzev. Given that $6.9 billion of herbal supplements are sold each year, is clear that further identification and characterization of phytosteroids is needed to ensure the safe and effective use of botanical supplements.

KEYWORDS:

Androgen; Corticoid; Herbal supplement; Phytosteroid; Progestin

PMID:
27986590
PMCID:
PMC5276729
DOI:
10.1016/j.mce.2016.12.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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