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J Med Food. 2016 Dec;19(12):1196-1203.

FlexPro MD, a Mixture of Krill Oil, Astaxanthin, and Hyaluronic Acid, Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Cytokine Production Through Inhibition of NF-κB.

Author information

1
1 Department of Life Science, Ewha Womans University , Seoul, Korea.
2
2 The Research Center for Cellular Homeostasis, Ewha Womans University , Seoul, Korea.
3
3 Novarex Co., Ltd. , Cheongju, Korea.
4
4 US Nutraceuticals, L.L.C. d/b/a Valensa International, Eustis, Florida, USA.

Abstract

FlexPro MD® (FP-MD), a novel multi-ingredient dietary supplement formulation, has been demonstrated to relieve knee joint pain in humans. However, the mechanisms of action responsible for the activity of FP-MD have not been elucidated. In this study, we show the anti-inflammatory effects of FP-MD in RAW264.7 macrophage cells and mice challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). FP-MD significantly inhibited the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-1β. In contrast, it elevated the mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. FP-MD markedly reduced LPS-induced phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and inhibitor of κB-α (IκB-α). Importantly, the anti-inflammatory effects of FP-MD were demonstrated in mice with LPS-induced inflammatory arthritis in which FP-MD significantly reduced the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory markers. Thus, this study suggests that FP-MD has anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting NF-κB that may offer a molecular basis for its pain relief property.

KEYWORDS:

NF-κB; astaxanthin; cytokines

PMID:
27982753
PMCID:
PMC5312594
DOI:
10.1089/jmf.2016.3787
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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