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Sci Rep. 2016 Dec 16;6:38403. doi: 10.1038/srep38403.

Immune Responses Induced by Recombinant Bacillus Subtilis Expressing the Hemagglutinin Protein of H5N1 in chickens.

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College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Weigang 1, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, PR China.


To develop an effective, safe, and convenient vaccine for the prevention of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, we have constructed a recombinant Bacillus subtilis strain (B.S.-HA) expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. Then we evaluated the immune function in chicken bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs), and the immune response after oral immunization. Our results show that the recombinant Bacillus subtilis B.S.-HA could be sampled by BM-DCs in vitro and increase the BM-DCs major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II phenotype. The weight, height of the small intestine villus, and lymphoid tissue area of the ileum increased significantly in B.S.-HA immunized chickens (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). B.S.-HA induced the secretion of cytokines and the expression of Toll-like receptors in the trachea and small intestine (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). In addition, B.S.-HA elevated the specific IgA titers in the trachea, IgG and HI antibody titers in serum (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Therefore, B.S.-HA provides a potential novel strategy and approach for developing an H5N1 vaccine.

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