Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Infect Pulm Dis. 2016 Oct;2(2). doi: 10.16966/2470-3176.114. Epub 2016 Apr 30.

Lethal Synergism between Influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Author information

  • 1Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, OK, USA.
  • 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.


The devastating synergism of bacterial pneumonia with influenza viral infections left its mark on the world over the last century. Although the details of pathogenesis remain unclear, the synergism is related to a variety of factors including pulmonary epithelial barrier damage which exposes receptors that influence bacterial adherence and the triggering of an exaggerated innate immune response and cytokine storm, which further acts to worsen the injury. Several therapeutics and combination therapies of antibiotics, anti-inflammatories including corticosteroids and toll-like receptor modifiers, and anti-virals are being discussed. This mini review summarizes recent developments in unearthing the pathogenesis of the lethal synergism of pneumococcal co-infection following influenza, as well as addresses potential therapeutic options and combinations of therapies currently being evaluated.


Bacterial co-infection; Influenza; Pathogenesis; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Therapeutics

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center