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Am Heart J. 2017 Jan;183:18-23. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2016.10.002. Epub 2016 Oct 6.

Chocolate intake and incidence of heart failure: Findings from the Cohort of Swedish Men.

Author information

1
Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Beth, Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 375 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA.
2
Cardiovascular Epidemiology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Beth, Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 375 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA; Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA.
3
Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1665 University Blvd, Birmingham, AL.
4
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.
5
Cardiovascular Epidemiology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Beth, Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 375 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA; Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA. Electronic address: mmittlem@bidmc.harvard.edu.

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of chocolate consumption and heart failure (HF) in a large population of Swedish men.

METHODS:

We conducted a prospective cohort study of 31,917 men 45-79 years old with no history of myocardial infarction, diabetes, or HF at baseline who were participants in the population-based Cohort of Swedish Men study. Chocolate consumption was assessed through a self-administrated food frequency questionnaire. Participants were followed for HF hospitalization or mortality from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2011, using record linkage to the Swedish inpatient and cause-of-death registries.

RESULTS:

During 14 years of follow-up, 2,157 men were hospitalized (n=1,901) or died from incident HF (n=256). Compared with subjects who reported no chocolate intake, the multivariable-adjusted rate ratio of HF was 0.88 (95% CI 0.78-0.99) for those consuming 1-3 servings per month, 0.83 (95% CI 0.72-0.94) for those consuming 1-2 servings per week, 0.82 (95% CI 0.68-0.99) for those consuming 3-6 servings per week, and 1.10 (95% CI 0.84-1.45) for those consuming ≥1 serving per day (P for quadratic trend=.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

In this large prospective cohort study, there was a J-shaped relationship between chocolate consumption and HF incidence. Moderate chocolate consumption was associated with a lower rate of HF hospitalization or death, but the protective association was not observed among individuals consuming ≥1 serving per day. Journal Subject Codes: Etiology: Epidemiology, Heart failure: Congestive.

PMID:
27979037
PMCID:
PMC5172457
DOI:
10.1016/j.ahj.2016.10.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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