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Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2016 Dec 16;13(1):122.

The impact of dietary risk factors on the burden of non-communicable diseases in Ethiopia: findings from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013.

Author information

1
School of Public Health, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia. adamayohannes@gmail.com.
2
Population Research and Outcome Studies, School of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia. adamayohannes@gmail.com.
3
Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
4
KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya.
5
Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
6
St. Paul Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
7
Department of Reproductive Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.
8
School of Public Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.
9
Brighton & Sussex Medical School, Brighton, UK.
10
School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
11
Federal Ministry of Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
12
School of Public Health, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
13
Centre of Cardiovascular Research & Education in Therapeutics, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
14
Institute of Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, Hohenheim University, Stuttgart, Germany.
15
Department of Public Health, Madda Walabu University, Bale Goba, Ethiopia.
16
Discipline of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.
17
School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
18
Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, the University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
19
Department of Public Health, Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
20
Health observatory, Discipline of Medicine, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital Campus, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.
21
Population Research and Outcome Studies, School of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has increased in sub-Saharan countries, including Ethiopia. The contribution of dietary behaviours to the NCD burden in Ethiopia has not been evaluated. This study, therefore, aimed to assess diet-related burden of disease in Ethiopia between 1990 and 2013.

METHOD:

We used the 2013 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) data to estimate deaths, years of life lost (YLLs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) related to eight food types, five nutrients and fibre intake. Dietary exposure was estimated using a Bayesian hierarchical meta-regression. The effect size of each diet-disease pair was obtained based on meta-analyses of prospective observational studies and randomized controlled trials. A comparative risk assessment approach was used to quantify the proportion of NCD burden associated with dietary risk factors.

RESULTS:

In 2013, dietary factors were responsible for 60,402 deaths (95% Uncertainty Interval [UI]: 44,943-74,898) in Ethiopia-almost a quarter (23.0%) of all NCD deaths. Nearly nine in every ten diet-related deaths (88.0%) were from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and 44.0% of all CVD deaths were related to poor diet. Suboptimal diet accounted for 1,353,407 DALYs (95% UI: 1,010,433-1,672,828) and 1,291,703 YLLs (95% UI: 961,915-1,599,985). Low intake of fruits and vegetables and high intake of sodium were the most important dietary factors. The proportion of NCD deaths associated with low fruit consumption slightly increased (11.3% in 1990 and 11.9% in 2013). In these years, the rate of burden of disease related to poor diet slightly decreased; however, their contribution to NCDs remained stable.

CONCLUSIONS:

Dietary behaviour contributes significantly to the NCD burden in Ethiopia. Intakes of diet low in fruits and vegetables and high in sodium are the leading dietary risks. To effectively mitigate the oncoming NCD burden in Ethiopia, multisectoral interventions are required; and nutrition policies and dietary guidelines should be developed.

KEYWORDS:

Burden of disease; Dietary risks; Ethiopia; Non-communicable diseases

PMID:
27978839
PMCID:
PMC5159959
DOI:
10.1186/s12966-016-0447-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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