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Oncotarget. 2017 Jan 17;8(3):3933-3945. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.13907.

The role of tumor microenvironment in therapeutic resistance.

Author information

1
Department of Integrated Biological Science, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Republic of Korea.
2
Department of Integrative Bioscience and Biotechnology, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Republic of Korea.
3
Integrative Graduate Program of Ship and Offshore Plant Technology for Ocean Energy Resource, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Republic of Korea.
4
Department of Biological Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

Cancer cells undergo unlimited progression and survival owing to activation of oncogenes. However, support of the tumor microenvironment is essential to the formation of clinically relevant tumors. Recent evidence indicates that the tumor microenvironment is a critical regulator of immune escape, progression, and distant metastasis of cancer. Moreover, the tumor microenvironment is known to be involved in acquired resistance of tumors to various therapies. Despite significant advances in chemotherapy and radiotherapy, occurrence of therapeutic resistance leads to reduced efficacy. This review highlights myeloid cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts, and mesenchymal stem cells consisting of the tumor microenvironment, as well as the relevant signaling pathways that eventually render cancer cells to be therapeutically resistant.

KEYWORDS:

cancer-associated fibroblasts; mesenchymal stem cells; myeloid cells; therapeutic resistance; tumor microenvironment

PMID:
27965469
PMCID:
PMC5354804
DOI:
10.18632/oncotarget.13907
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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