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J Agric Food Chem. 2016 Dec 28;64(51):9697-9701. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.6b04792. Epub 2016 Dec 13.

Distribution of Flunixin Residues in Muscles of Dairy Cattle Dosed with Lipopolysaccharide or Saline and Treated with Flunixin by Intravenous or Intramuscular Injection.

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Biosciences Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture , 1605 Albrecht Boulevard North, Fargo, North Dakota 58102, United States.
Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture , 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania 19038, United States.


Twenty dairy cows received flunixin meglumine at 2.2 mg/kg bw, administered once daily by either the intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) route for three consecutive days with either intravenous normal saline (NS) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) providing a balanced design with five animals per group. Cows were sacrificed after a 4 day withdrawal period, and 13 muscle types were collected and assayed for flunixin by LC-MS/MS. After elimination of sample outliers, the main effects of route of administration (IV or IM), treatment (NS or LPS), and tissue type significantly (P < 0.05) affected flunixin residues, with no interaction (P > 0.05). Intramuscular (nonlabel) flunixin administration produced greater (P < 0.05) flunixin residues in muscle than the IV (label) administration, whereas LPS resulted in lower flunixin levels. Differences among the tissue levels indicate it is necessary to specify the tissue to be used for any monitoring of drug levels for consumer protection.


cattle; flunixin; intramuscular; intravenous; residues

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