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World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Nov 28;22(44):9674-9693.

Fatty liver is associated with an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease - Evidence from three different disease models: NAFLD, HCV and HIV.

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Amedeo Lonardo, Fabio Nascimbeni, Dante Romagnoli, Division of Internal Medicine and Metabolism, Nuovo Ospedale Civile Sant'Agostino Estense - Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and Azienda Ospedaliera of Modena, 41126 Modena, Italy.


Fatty liver, which frequently coexists with necro-inflammatory and fibrotic changes, may occur in the setting of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic infections due to either hepatitis C virus (HCV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These three pathologic conditions are associated with an increased prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this multidisciplinary clinical review, we aim to discuss the ever-expanding wealth of clinical and epidemiological evidence supporting a key role of fatty liver in the development of T2D and CVD in patients with NAFLD and in those with HCV or HIV infections. For each of these three common diseases, the epidemiological features, pathophysiologic mechanisms and clinical implications of the presence of fatty liver in predicting the risk of incident T2D and CVD are examined in depth. Collectively, the data discussed in this updated review, which follows an innovative comparative approach, further reinforce the conclusion that the presence of fatty/inflamed/fibrotic liver might be a shared important determinant for the development of T2D and CVD in patients with NAFLD, HCV or HIV. This review may also open new avenues in the clinical and research arenas and paves the way for the planning of future, well-designed prospective and intervention studies.


Atherosclerosis; Cardiovascular risk; Fatty liver; Fibrosis; Hepatitis C virus; Hepatitis C-associated dysmetabolic syndrome; Human immunodeficiency virus; Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; Steatohepatitis; Steatosis; Virus-associated fatty liver disease

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