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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Dec 27;113(52):15042-15047. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1615688114. Epub 2016 Dec 12.

Histone deacetylases control module-specific phenotypic plasticity in beetle weapons.

Author information

1
Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan.
2
Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.
3
Department of General Systems Studies, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan.
4
Division of Evolutionary Developmental Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585, Japan.
5
Laboratory of Evolutionary Ecology, Graduate School of Environmental Science, Okayama University, Okayama, Okayama 700-8530, Japan.
6
Department of General Systems Studies, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan; kohta@bio.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp okayasukazu@gmail.com.
7
Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan; kohta@bio.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp okayasukazu@gmail.com.

Abstract

Nutritional conditions during early development influence the plastic expression of adult phenotypes. Among several body modules of animals, the development of sexually selected exaggerated traits exhibits striking nutrition sensitivity, resulting in positive allometry and hypervariability distinct from other traits. Using de novo RNA sequencing and comprehensive RNA interference (RNAi) for epigenetic modifying factors, we found that histone deacetylases (HDACs) and polycomb group (PcG) proteins preferentially influence the size of mandibles (exaggerated male weapon) and demonstrate nutrition-dependent hypervariability in the broad-horned flour beetle, Gnatocerus cornutus RNAi-mediated HDAC1 knockdown (KD) in G. cornutus larvae caused specific curtailment of mandibles in adults, whereas HDAC3 KD led to hypertrophy. Notably, these KDs conferred opposite effects on wing size, but little effect on the size of the core body and genital modules. PcG RNAi also reduced adult mandible size. These results suggest that the plastic development of exaggerated traits is controlled in a module-specific manner by HDACs.

KEYWORDS:

Gnatocerus cornutus; HDAC; exaggerated male weapon; phenotypic plasticity; sexual dimorphism

PMID:
27956627
PMCID:
PMC5206575
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1615688114
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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