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Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2017 Apr;220(2 Pt B):415-423. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.12.003. Epub 2016 Dec 6.

The simultaneous detection of trivalent & hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate: A feasibility study comparing workers and controls.

Author information

1
Health and Safety Executive, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN, UK; Biomolecular Sciences Research Centre, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB, UK. Electronic address: Liz.leese@hsl.gsi.gov.uk.
2
Health and Safety Executive, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN, UK.
3
Biomolecular Sciences Research Centre, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB, UK.

Abstract

The analytical method outlined in this feasibility study has been used to show that trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) can be detected and measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples. EBC samples and urine samples were collected from a cohort of 58 workers occupationally exposed to hexavalent chromium compounds and 22 unexposed volunteers (control group). Levels of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were determined in EBC samples and total chromium levels were determined in urine samples. Pre and post working week samples for both EBC and urine were collected in tandem. Total chromium in urine samples was analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Analysis of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in EBC samples used a hyphenated micro liquid chromatography (μLC) system coupled to an ICP-MS. Separation was achieved using an anion exchange micro-sized column. The results showed that the occupationally exposed workers had significantly higher levels of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in their EBC samples than the control group, as well as higher levels of total chromium in their urine samples. However, for the exposed workers no significant difference was found between pre and post working week EBC samples for either Cr(III) or Cr(VI). This study has established that Cr(III) and Cr(VI) can simultaneously be detected and measured in 'real' EBC samples and will help in understanding inhalation exposure.

KEYWORDS:

Chromium; Exhaled breath condensate; Hexavalent; Occupational exposure; Trivalent; μLC-ICP-MS

PMID:
27956251
DOI:
10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.12.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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