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Korean J Intern Med. 2017 May;32(3):478-485. doi: 10.3904/kjim.2015.340. Epub 2016 Dec 13.

Clinical significance of positive Pneumocystis jirovecii polymerase chain reaction in non-human immunodeficiency virus immunocompromised patients in a real practice.

Author information

1
Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.
2
Department of Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIMS:

Pneumocystis jirovecii polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be helpful in diagnosing Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP); however it has limitations. We evaluated the prevalence of positive P. jirovecii PCR from non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunocompromised patients and tried to determine the risk of PCP development.

METHODS:

Between May 2009 and September 2012, P. jirovecii PCR was performed in bronchoscopic specimens from 1,231 adult non-HIV immunocompromised patients suspected of respiratory infection. Only 169 patients (13.7%) who were tested positive for P. jirovecii PCR were enrolled. Retrospective chart review was performed. PCP was defined in patients with positive P. jirovecii PCR who were treated for PCP based on the clinical decision.

RESULTS:

From 169 P. jirovecii PCR-positive patients, 90 patients were in the PCP group (53.3%) and 79 patients were in the non-PCP group (46.7%). In the PCP group, 38% of patients expired or aggravated after therapy, whereas the majority of patients (84%) in the non-PCP group recovered without treatment for PCP. Independent risk factors for PCP by binary logistic regression analysis were underlying conditions- hematological malignancies, solid tumors or solid organ transplantation, dyspnea, age < 60 years, and albumin < 2.9 g/dL.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study suggests that not all P. jirovecii PCR-positive patients need to be treated for PCP. Among P. jirovecii PCR-positive patients, those who are less than 60 years old, with hematological malignancies, solid tumors or solid organ transplantation, low albumin, and with symptoms of dyspnea, the possibility of PCP might be higher. Treatment should also be selected to these patients.

KEYWORDS:

Immunocompromised; Pneumocystis; Pneumonia; Polymerase chain reaction

PMID:
27951623
PMCID:
PMC5432796
DOI:
10.3904/kjim.2015.340
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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