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Clin Dermatol. 2017 Jan - Feb;35(1):28-39. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2016.09.005. Epub 2016 Sep 10.

Acral manifestations of fungal infections.

Author information

1
Cerrahpaşa Medical Faculty, Department of Dermatology, İstanbul University, Fatih, Istanbul 34098, Turkey. Electronic address: Zekayikutlubay@hotmail.com.
2
İstanbul Medipol University, Health Care Practice & Research Center, Esenler Hospital, Department of Dermatology, İstanbul, Turkey.
3
Cerrahpaşa Medical Faculty, Department of Medical Mycology, İstanbul University, Fatih, Istanbul 34098, Turkey.
4
Cerrahpaşa Medical Faculty, Department of Dermatology, İstanbul University, Fatih, Istanbul 34098, Turkey.

Abstract

Fungal infections, which are named according to the body site involved, can affect any skin area, the fingernails, or the toenails. Numerous fungal agents are responsible for both superficial and deep fungal diseases. Dermatophytes and Candida spp are the most common causative organisms on the surface of the hands, feet, and nails of patients with superficial fungal diseases; however, although deep fungal infections of the skin are less common compared with superficial fungal diseases, their incidence is increasing worldwide due to cross-border travel. Most superficial fungal diseases are diagnosed clinically, but sometimes direct microscopic examination with potassium hydroxide and fungal culture may be necessary for diagnosis, especially in patients suspected of having tinea incognito. In cases of superficial fungal infections except for onychomycosis and tinea incognito, topical treatments are usually sufficient and effective, but systemic treatments may be required in recalcitrant cases. Deep fungal diseases may resemble each other clinically; therefore, the organism must be identified with laboratory methods and should be treated for a long period. We review the most important clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of fungal diseases. This paper covers fungal problems encountered both in hospitals and in general practice.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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