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PLoS One. 2016 Dec 9;11(12):e0167861. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167861. eCollection 2016.

CO2-Induced ATP-Dependent Release of Acetylcholine on the Ventral Surface of the Medulla Oblongata.

Author information

1
Centre for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Neuroscience, Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
2
School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom.

Abstract

Complex mechanisms that detect changes in brainstem parenchymal PCO2/[H+] and trigger adaptive changes in lung ventilation are responsible for central respiratory CO2 chemosensitivity. Previous studies of chemosensory signalling pathways suggest that at the level of the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata (VMS), CO2-induced changes in ventilation are (at least in part) mediated by the release and actions of ATP and/or acetylcholine (ACh). Here we performed simultaneous real-time biosensor recordings of CO2-induced ATP and ACh release from the VMS in vivo and in vitro, to test the hypothesis that central respiratory CO2 chemosensory transduction involves simultaneous recruitment of purinergic and cholinergic signalling pathways. In anaesthetised and artificially ventilated rats, an increase in inspired CO2 triggered ACh release on the VMS with a peak amplitude of ~5 μM. Release of ACh was only detected after the onset of CO2-induced activation of the respiratory activity and was markedly reduced (by ~70%) by ATP receptor blockade. In horizontal slices of the VMS, CO2-induced release of ATP was reliably detected, whereas CO2 or bath application of ATP (100 μM) failed to trigger release of ACh. These results suggest that during hypercapnia locally produced ATP induces or potentiates the release of ACh (likely from the medullary projections of distal groups of cholinergic neurones), which may also contribute to the development and/or maintenance of the ventilatory response to CO2.

PMID:
27936179
PMCID:
PMC5148032
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0167861
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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