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Indian J Med Res. 2016 Aug;144(2):194-199. doi: 10.4103/0971-5916.195025.

Small-for-gestational-age versus appropriate-for-gestational-age: Comparison of cord blood lipid profile & insulin levels in term newborns (SAGA-ACT study).

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  • 1Department of Cardiology, Yashoda Hospital, Secunderabad, India.
  • 2Department of Obstetrics, Gandhi Medical College & Hospital, Secunderabad, India.
  • 3Secunderabad Diagnostic & Research Centre, Secunderabad, India.
  • 4Department of Clinical Trials, Sahajanand Medical Technologies Pvt. Ltd., Surat, India.



The genesis of atherosclerotic lesions, a major cardiovascular risk factor starts in the early stage of life. If the premature development of cardiovascular risk factors can be anticipated during childhood, cardiovascular events can be prevented effectively by taking appropriate measures. This study was carried out to assess the role of in utero malnutrition in cardiovascular disease development by comparing cord blood lipid profiles and serum insulin levels between small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) term newborns.


Consecutive full-term infants who were born between June 20 and August 19, 2013, at the Obstetric Unit of a Hospital at Secunderabad, India, were enrolled in this study. Participating newborns were divided into SGA group (n = 51; test group) and AGA group (n = 52; control group) based on their gestational age and body weight. Cord blood lipid profile and insulin levels were compared between these two groups.


As compared to the newborns in AGA group, SGA group of newborns had significantly (P<0.01) higher levels of cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein. No difference was observed between the groups for high-density lipoprotein and insulin levels. Mild and moderate anaemia was observed among mothers of both groups, while severe anaemia was seen in mothers of SGA group only.


SGA newborns exhibited elevated lipid profiles as compared to AGA newborns. Hence, SGA newborns should be closely monitored for cardiovascular morbidities during childhood, adolescence and early adult life.

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